Colon and rectal surgeons treat a multitude of conditions that affect the lower digestive tract, through both surgical and non-surgical methods. In addition to full general surgical training, they have received advanced surgical training, specific to diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus. Colorectal surgeons must complete residencies in both general surgery and colon and rectal surgery on their way to board certification. They must also pass rigorous examinations from the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery. They utilize a variety of tests to help form a diagnosis, including ultrasound, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, and flexible sigmoidoscopy. As part of a team of medical professionals, they can also perform a variety of surgical procedures, including open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery (colon resection, colectomy, polypectomy), and ostomy (colostomy, ileostomy). But their job doesn’t end with a procedure. They continue to monitor and care for their patents post-surgery as well.